Loan and Bond Market Definitions

Here we start by describing the difference between loans and bonds, then demystify some of the jargon that is common to both.

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10 video modules • 59 minutes

  • What is the Difference Between Loans and Bonds?

    Loans and bonds have a number of key differences which lead them to be used by different issuers and investors - Farouk analyses a handful of these.

    Farouk Ramzan26:06

  • What is a Negative Pledge?

    How do creditors know they will get what they're owed when a company defaults? How do they know that other equal creditors won't receive more than them? A negative pledge creates creditor equality at a given level of a company’s capital structure by ensuring that no other creditor is better off than any other in liquidation. In this video Tim explains the concept of a negative pledge in more detail. 

    Tim Skeet01:36

  • What is a Financial Covenant?

    Covenants oblige borrowers to adhere to a set of conditions, typically in the form of a set of financial metrics and ratios. Here, Tim goes into further detail by outlining typical triggers, consequences and specific types.

    Tim Skeet09:07

  • What is Cross-default?

    Cross-default is a common clause in borrowing documentation that allows creditors to demand repayment if it defaults on one of its obligations. Join Tim in this video where he takes us through this concept in more detail.

    Tim Skeet03:16

  • What is Force Majeure?

    A borrower needs to protect themselves from liabilities that are out of their control, for example natural catastrophes. In this video Tim explains the idea of force majeure, which is a common clause in borrowing documentation, releasing borrowers from liability for natural catastrophes. 

    Tim Skeet01:02

  • What is Pari Passu?

    It is key that investors and lenders understand where they stand in the repayment queue should a company default. In this video Tim discusses the pari passu clause, a standard feature in debt agreements ensuring creditors are aware of when they will be repaid, in relation to other lenders.

    Tim Skeet04:22

  • What is a Greenshoe Option?

    During an IPO, greenshoe options give underwriters the facility to acquire more shares to try and stabilise the stock price after initial trading. Tim explains the details around how these work and why they are necessary.

    Tim Skeet04:28

  • What is Senior Debt?

    At its simplest, debt is split into senior and subordinated segments. Senior debt will receive priority in getting repaid from any cash left over in the business. In this video, Tim provides an overview of the order of repayment within senior debt.

    Tim Skeet03:24

  • What is Subordinated Debt?

    As the name suggests, junior or subordinated debt holders contractually stand below all forms of senior debt. In this short video, Tim explains the risks associated with investing in subordinated debt and the reasons why borrowers issue this type of debt.

    Tim Skeet01:49

  • What is Mezzanine Debt?

    There are forms of capital that combine elements of debt and equity. An example of this is mezzanine debt. In this video, Tim Skeet discusses the structure of mezzanine debt and why it attracts investors.

    Tim Skeet04:04

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